Valerianella

R. D. Meikle, Flora of Cyprus 2. 1985
but modified
1Fruits usually of two kinds, those of the lowermost forking of the inflorescence much narrower (probably seedless) than the rest, surmounted by 3 short or long horns or projections, and with conspicuous blocks or ridges of spongy tissue; branches of inflorescence in fruit usually inflating; bracteoles narrow and mostly green
1'Fruits all of one kind, surmounted by a ± symmetrical coronate or inflated persistent calyx, or calyx represented by an oblique tube or fan or simple, flattened, greenish tooth or rim; or calyx ± absent; spongy tissue absent; inflorescence branches not inflated in fruit (except occasionally in V. muricata); bracteoles various
2Fruits with 3 short horns
2'Fruits with one or more long horns, visible early in flower
3Fruits asymmetric, with one long and two short horns; bracteole margins ± entire
3'Fruits ± symmetrical with 3 long horns; bracteole margins clearly repand-dentate with a few rather glandular teeth
4Fruiting calyx an inflated bladder-like vesicle with about 6 inflexed teeth around the ostiole, developing very early and detectable in flower; bracteoles very broad and very membranous and white-ciliate
4'Fruiting calyx otherwise; bracteoles narrower, ciliate or glabrous
5Fruiting calyx ± coronate; ovary in fruit densely hairy, squarish-wedge-shaped, tapering to base in face view (i.e. with fertile loculus at the back); bracteoles obviously ciliate and with wide membranous margins
5'Fruiting calyx ± absent or reduced to a rim or fan, best developed on the fertile loculus, rarely an oblique tube; ovary in fruit glabrous or weakly hairy, rarely obviously hairy, and, if so, then ovary ovoid; bracteoles mostly green and ± glabrous, except for V. pumila with ciliate bracteoles
6Fruit not more than 2 mm long overall, lobes of fruiting calyx weakly developed, not hooked, sometimes only ± 3
6'Fruit larger, lobes of fruiting calyx strongly developed; usually terminated by a smooth indurate hooked point
7Interior of calyx-cup glabrous, lobes 6; these distinctions generally visible in flower
7'Interior of calyx-cup pubescent, lobes up to 12, of different widths, sometimes only 6 but then with subsidiary hooks
8Fruits longer than broad, incurved, with a distinct channel between the sterile loculi; fruiting calyx absent, fertile loculus projecting slightly beyond the sterile
8'Fruits about as long as broad or only slightly longer; fruiting calyx present as a distinct tooth or fan or rarely an oblique tube
9Fruits almost globose, glabrous, with two large sterile loculi and calyx reduced to a tooth on the fertile loculus, sometimes spreading forwards to the sterile loculi as an irregular rim; bracteoles ciliate
9'Fruits ovoid, usually hairy, the two sterile loculi reduced to curving (often pale) ridges on the anterior surface, surmounted by a fan or oblique tube with venation clearly visible; bracteoles glabrous